The early man

Identify two method of dating fossils (2 mark) 

(i) Geological periods 

(ii) Chemical dating e.g. Radio carbon & potassium argon 

(iii) Stratography 

(iv) Fission track dating 

(v) Lexicon statistics dating 

(vi) Statistical dating 

Give two cultural practices of homosapiens (2 marks) 

(i) Food preservation through pots, fire, and baskets 

(ii) Sedentary life/built permanent shelter 

(iii) Art e.g. rock painting and body decoration 

(iv) Religious beliefs/burials were conducted. 

State one place where the remains of Australopithecus were discovered in Africa             

- Laetok(1mk) 


Give five reasons why man gradually changed his main economic activities during the neo-lithic period (5mrks) 

- Natural environment could not provide enough food for the high population

- Climatic changes led to increased drought - most animals died and plants dried up leading to food shortages 

- Competition for food between human beings and animals led to shortage of food for human being making men to adopt other sources of food 

- Over hunting highly reduced wild animals which were a major source of food to men leading men to adopt agriculture 

- Hunting and gathering was a tiresome economic activity since men led to warder over a large area looking for food 

- Calamities like bush fire and floods destroyed vegetation and made animals to run away leading to shortage of food. Any 5x1 =

Name the British scientist who is credited to theory of evolution (1Mark) 

                   Charles Darwin

Which was the most important development in the middle stone age? (1mk)

The invention of fire

State three economic uses of animals by the early man (3mks)

 - Animals were used as a measure of wealth 

- Dogs were used for hunting

- Oxen were used in ploughing land 

- Some animals were used for transport 

- Some animals produced manure which greatly improved agricultural products. 

 Give the main reason why East Africa is believed to be the first home of man. 1mk) 

Remains of the earliest known hominids have been found here.


Give two physical characteristics of proconsul. (2mks) 

- Like chimpanzee in size 

- Had quadrupedal Movement 

- Had smooth forehead 

- had long teeth like that of animals. 

- Appearance of his skull is a little closer to man and was ape like. 

Give three theories that explain the origin of human beings. 3mks) 

-      Creation theory explains that all living were created by God / Allah. 

-      The evolution theory which explains human beings evolved which explain human beings evolved from simple life types that transformed slowly over millions of years. 

-      Myths / Traditional which describe the origin of certain communities. 

Explain six limitations of using archaeology as a source of information on History and  Government. 

- It is limited to the study of the ancient period only. 

- It is time consuming. 

- Artifacts can be destroyed by weather or man’s activities. 

- The information is inaccurate because the information that is gathered is scanty.

- The dates are not accurate, they are estimated. 

- Some artifacts and fossils can break during excavation. 

- It is expensive source of information as one has to hire laborers and take artifacts and fossils to the laboratory for analysis. 



Give two factors which influenced the early man to domesticate animals during the Neolithic period (2mks) 

-Some animal were friends to man 

-Over hunting by man led to scarcity of wild game 

-Hunting was found to be tedious / cumber some 2x1=2mks 


Outline the improvements made in the way of life of early man during the new Stone Age period (5mks) 

-      Made advanced tools called microlithic which included arrow, knives, sickles, spears, dagger

-      Improved way of hunting, gathering, fishing due to improved tools 

-      Improved and better shelters other than caves due to improved tools that were used to cut tree branches and grass 

-      Beginning of domestication of plants / animals (agriculture) due to improved tools 

-      Settled life and building of semi-permanent shelters inorder to carry out farming activities 

-      Improved social way of life which led to setting up of rules and laws / equlations

-      Beginning religious beliefs as they began to depend more on natural forces like rain 

-      Beginning of political organization and government as leadership emerged inorder to organize the larger social groups and activities 

-      Beginning of specialization in art craft, pottery, basketry because with settle life and agriculture, they now had free time

State two ways through which early man adapted to the environment during the Stone Age period (2mks) 

-      Developed an upright posture to see enemies far and for defence. 

-      Started living in caves for security efficient 

-      Improved the manufacture of tools for work.

-      Migrated to warmer place to escape cold seasons 

-      Invented fire for warmth and cook his food. 

-      Started making cloths using animal skin


State three factors which show that Africa was the cradle of man (3mks) 

-      They were heavy / not easy to work with. 

-      They were not durable 

-      Stone cutting/ shaping was time consuming. 

Describe the way of life of Early Human beings during the middle Stone Age period (12mks) 

-      The numerous archaeological sites where fossils were found which resemble man.

-      The savannah grassland which provided space for early man to effectively hunt and gather. 

-      Tropical climate was suitable for early man. 

-      The many all season rivers that provided water and trapping wild animals were present. 

-      Africa was at centre of pangea .

Identify two categories of tools made during the old stone age period

-      Oldowan (pebble) tools found at Olduvai Gorge 

-      Acheulian tools found at St. Acheul – France.


 Describe the way of life of Early Human beings during the middle Stone Age period 

-      Made improved tools using the levallois technique like flakes blades .

-      Early man lived in caves and rock shelters e.g gamble cave for protection. 

-      Man hunted using improved hunting methods – used tools gathered wild fruits, fishing.

-      He decorated his body using red ochre, animal oil, wore shells and neckless

-      Early man communicated using clicks and grunts from gestures 

-      Early man developed the art of writing – pictoral writing – telling / show activities he performed 

-      Early man ate cooked food 



Explain how radiocarbon dating is used as a method of dating fossils by archeologists.                     

-      Archeologists determine the amount of carbon in an object / skeleton / rock and the more carbon there is in an object the younger it is

 Identify two hunting methods used by early man during the stone age period.

-      Chased the animals until they caught them. 

-      Dug holes to which animals fell and kill them. 

-      Used traps. 

-      Chased them into swamps 

-      Chased them over cliffs 


Name two hominids who manufactured old man tools during the Old Stone Age period.

-      Australopithecus 

-      Homohabilis

Why Africa is the cradle land of man. 

-      Oldest fossils- Africa has produced the oldest fossils than other continents. 

-      Highest number of fossils – Africa has the highest number of human fossils than other continents. 

-      Many rivers – Africa has many rivers which could have provided water to early man. 

-      Availability of the savanna grass land- they provided suitable hunting grounds for early man /availability of food. 

-      Central location – it is from a central location like Africa that early man could have travelled to other worlds. 

-      Suitable climate –Africa doesn’t have extremes of temperature hence could have favored early man. 

-      Forests availability- forests could have provided suitable habitat for early man 5x1(5mks). 


Cultural and economic practices of early man in the Neolithic period.

-      Made stone tool called microliths. 

-      Used sign language (rudimentary language). 

-      was hunter and gatherer. 

-      Practised rock painting. 

-      Practised simple religion. 

-      Grew crops 

-      Reared animals. 

-      Led settled life. 

-      Invented and used fire. 5x2=(10mks) 

State two characteristics that distinguish man from other primates. 

-      Development of the speech 

-      Development of the brain 

-      Upright posture/bipedalism. 

2 x1 = 2mks

Define the term anthropology. (1 mk) 

-      It is the study of social and cultural; institution of man that is his origins, development, customs, kinship ties, marriage religions, practices and economic activities.


State 5 reasons why early man domesticated crops and animals. 

-      Increase in population thus the environment could not provided adequate food. - Change in climate made it impossible for human beings to rely on nature for food. - Competition for food among people and animals. 

-      Over-hunting leading to the need for domesticating of some animals. 

-      Hunting and gathering was tiresome 

-      Some animals e.g. cattle were domesticated for sacrificial purposes. 

-      Some were social and learnt to tolerate and accept man e.g. dog, cattle, sheep and goats.

-      Need for security e.g. dog 

Three factors that led to the development of religious beliefs in Societies 

-      Desire to understand things that were beyond human understanding e.g. moon, floods and drought. 

-      Search for security in the face of uncertainties to human existence e.g. death - Attempts by the human race to explain their existence on earth. 

-      Desire to keep the community together 

-      Desire for unity 

-       Direct and indirect divine revelation to certain individuals in society 

Name two economic activities of man in the pre-historic period 

-       Hunting 

-      Gathering 

-      Fishing


Give two examples of tools made by middle stone age man 

-       Choppers 

-      Daggers 

-      Scrapers 

-      Tang


Identify two factors that forced early man to change from hunting and gathering to food production. 

-       Increased population which could not be provided with adequate food by the environment

-      Climatic changes like drought that threatened life of animals and plants.

-      Competition for food among human beings and between human beings and animals.

State two distinct features of homoerectus (2mks) 

-       Had a high thinking capacity 

-      Walked upright 

-      Had refined speech 

-      Small jaws 

-      Ability to grasp objects 

-      Thicky and heavy build 

Identify two stages of evolution according to Charles Darwin (2mk) 

-       Mutation 

-      Natural selection

-      Adaptation



State two characteristics of Homo-erectus.

- Was upright/bipedal/walked on two legs 

- More intelligent than the earlier apes/higher thinking capacity 

- Had a bigger brain capacity 775 – 1225cc 

- Had more developed speech than earlier apes 

- Had more developed hand for grasping tools. 

- Had a long skull 

- Had long protruding jaws 

- Made more refined tools than Homo Habilis e.g. archeulian tool

Identify two aspects of culture that developed during the new stone Age (Upper Paleolithic period)  - Started agriculture 

- Permanent settlement (houses) 

- Microlithic tools (light, sharp and different tools) 

- Developed government 

- Developed religion 

- Advanced language

- Advanced crafts like basketry, pottery and weaving 

- Body decorations

State two uses of acheulian tools

-      Skinning 

-      Cutting 

-      Scrapping 

-      Digging

 What was the most important development in the middle Stone Age period?

-      Invention of fire

In which three ways did mans development of upright posture improve his life.

-      He was able to defend himself effectively 

-      He was able to see oncoming danger 

-      He could effectively handle his tools 

-      He was able to spot his prey / hunted animals 

-      His body temperature would be lowered considerably by exposing only a small part the sun 

Explain the factors which made the early man to develop agriculture.

-      Need to replace tedious hunting and gathering methods 

-      Man’s realization that some animals were social 

-      Decrease in the hunted animals due to migration / climatic changes

-      Development of improved tools 

-      The discovery of fire which saw him take an interest as he saw burnt crops regrow. 

-      Population increase which led to diminishing of hunting grounds

-      Competition for food between man and the predators 

-      Natural disasters e.g. floods or fires would kill animals and cause survivors to migrate further away from man.

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